The Phosphate Knowledge Center
|Title:||Biomimetic systems for hydroxyapatite mineralization inspired by bone and enamel|
|Author:||Palmer LC, Newcomb CJ, Kaltz SR, Spoerke ED, Stupp SI|
The study of biomineralization is not only important to gain an understanding of how mineralrich tissues are created in vivo but also because it is a great source of inspiration for the design of advanced materials. Mineralized tissues have remarkable hierarchical structures that have evolved over time to achieve great functions in a large variety of organisms. Organic phases play a key role in templating the structure of mineralized tissues; therefore, their matrices are often hybrid in composition, varying widely in the relative content of organic and inorganic substances. Understanding the complex integration of hard and soft phases that biology achieves in mineralized matrices across scales and its link to properties is knowledge of great value to materials chemistry. At the same time, the synthetic mechanisms used by biology to create mineralized matrices could also offer some useful strategies to create synthetic hybrid materials. Often, the amount of organic material utilized by Nature to modify mechanical properties of mineralized structures is vanishingly small. One example is the role of occluded proteins in the toughness of biogenic calcite. The study of mammalian bone and teeth in the biomineralization and biomimetic context is particularly interesting since the information derived could contribute a significant biomedical impact on therapies and strategies to repair or regenerate human mineralized tissues. This is an important area given the continually rising average life span of humans. The materials of interest could be highly sophisticated bioactive scaffolds to regenerate bone and possibly dental tissues as well. This review focuses on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) in synthetic systems designed primarily in the biomimetic context of bone or enamel mineralization for therapeutic approaches in repair of human tissues. Bone and enamel share the same mineral composition, HA, but have different morphologies and organic content. Enamel is almost entirely inorganic in composition, and bone has a relatively high organic composition. Knowledge acquired in this field may inspire the chemical synthesis of novel hybrid materials, including apatite-based structures for the regeneration of human bone and dental tissues.
|Submited to Green Pi:||2010-06-03 By admin|
|Modified on Green Pi:||2013-03-22 By farzi|